Persephone New World Encyclopedia



[1] ZEUS & METER (Hesiod Theogony 912 Homeric Hymn 2 to meter Apollodorus Pausanias Ovid Metamorphoses Ovid Fasti Nonnus Dionysiaca et al) [2] ZEUS & STYX (Apollodorus ) [1] ZAGREUS (by Zeus) (Orphic Hymn 29 Hyginus Fabulae 155 Diodorus Siculus 4.4.1 Nonnus Dionysiaca Suidas s.v Zagreus) [2] MELINOE (by Zeus) (Orphic Hymn 71) [3] THE ERINYES (by Hais) (Orphic Hymns 29 & 70)

Athenian Black Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C K14.2 Has & Apulian Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C K14.6 Has & Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C. Diodorus Siculus Library of History 4 63 4 (trans Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : "Peirithoos () [after helping Theseus abduct Helene] now cid to seek the hand of in and when he asked Theseus to make the journey with him Theseus at first enavoured to dissua him and to turn him away from such a ed as being impious; but since Peirithoos firmly insisted upon it Theseus was bound by the oaths to join with him in the ed And when they had at last ma their way below to the regions of Hais it came to pass that because of the impiety of their act they were both put in chains and although Theseus was later let go by reason of the favour with which Herakles regard him Peirithoos because of the impiety remained in Hais enduring everlasting punishment; but some writers of myths say that both of them never returned." When Herakles came to the unrworld on his quest to fetch Kerberos (Cerberus) the Hound of Hais received him like a brother and allowed him to carry off the dog as well as free Theseus from his bonds Bacchylis Fragment 5 (trans Campbell Vol Greek Lyric IV) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : "[Herakles went] down to the house of slenr-ankled to fetch up to the light from Hais the jagged-toothed dog [Kerberos (Cerberus)]." Seneca Phaedra 93 ff (trans Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : "Through the ep shas of the pool which none recrosses is he [Theseus] faring this brave recruit of a madcap suitor [Peirithoos] that from the very throne of the infernal king [Hais] he may rob and bear away his wife [] He hurries on a partner in mad folly; him nor fear nor shame held back And there in the pths of Acherontis [i.e the unrworld] he seeks adultery and an unlawful bed." Statius Thebaid 8 53 ff (trans Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : "The rash ardour of provoked me [Hais] and Theseus sworn comra of his daring friend [the pair attempted to abduct ]." Orphic Hymn 30 to Dionysus (trans Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C to 2nd A.D.) : "Thrice begotten (trigonon) Bakkheion (Bacchian) king [Dionysos] Eubouleos [Dionysos-Zagreos] whom the leaves of vines adorn of Zeus and ia occultly born in beds ineffable." Orphic Hymn 46 to Licnitus : "[Dionysos-Zagreos] from Zeus' high counsels nursed by ia and born the dread of all the powers divine." For the MYTH of the birth of Zagreus see seduced by Zeus (below) II MELINOE Melinoe was an unrworld godss intified with Hekate. Also spelled Peirithous in Greek mythology the son of Ixion and the companion and helper of the hero Theseus in his many adventures including the scent into Has to carry off the daughter of the godss meter They were tained in Has until the Greek hero Heracles rescued Theseus. Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C K14.8 Has & Sisyphus Athenian Black Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C K14.9 & Hermes Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C. Suidas s.v Zagreus (trans Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D.) : "Zagreus : Dionysos in poets For Zeus it seems had intercourse with and she gave birth to Dionysos Khthonios (Chthonius)." For MORE information on the god Zagreus see ZAGREUS For a RELATED myth see the story of the birth of Melinoe: Offspring of Myth&fantasy Author-Friends! Orphic Hymn 56 to Adonis (trans Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C to 2nd A.D.) : "[Adonis] sweet plant of Aphrodite Eros' (Love's) lightful flower : scend from the secret bed divine of fair-haired 'tis thine to sink in Tartaros profound and shine again through heavens illustrious round." Pseudo-Hyginus Astronomica 2 7 (trans Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : "Some also have said that Venus [Aphrodite] and Proserpina [] came to Jove [Zeus] for his cision asking him to which of them he would grant Adonis Calliope the judge appointed by Jove cid that each should posses him half of the year." For MORE information on Adonis see APHRODITE LOVES: ADONIS In the Orphic myths the main godss was seduced by Zeus in the guise of a serpent She bore him a son the godling Zagreus who when Zeus placed him upon the throne of heaven was attacked and dismembered by the Titanes His heart was recovered and he was reborn through Semele as the god Dionysos An infernal godss named Melinoe (probably Hekate) was also said to have been born from their union Orphic Hymn 30 to Dionysus (trans Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C to 2nd A.D.) : "Thrice begotten (trigonon) Bakkheion (Bacchian) king [Dionysos] Eubouleos [Dionysos-Zagreos] whom the leaves of vines adorn of Zeus and ia occultly born in beds ineffable." Orphic Hymn 46 to Licnitus : "[Dionysos-Zagreus] from Zeus’ high counsels nursed by ia and born the dread of all the powers divine." Aelian Historical Miscellany 4 5 (trans Wilson) (Greek rhetorician C2nd to 3rd A.D.) : "Benefits were remembered and thanks for them given by Theseus to Herakles Aïdoneus king of the Molossians put Theseus in chains when he came with to kidnap the king's wife [i.e ] Theseus did not want to marry the woman himself but did this as a favour to Herakles came to the country of the Molossians and rescued Theseus in return for which the latter set up an altar to him." For MORE information on this main see PSYKHE ANCIENT GREEK & ROMAN ART K14.1 Has & Apulian Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C K14.4 Has & Apulian Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C. Aphrodite sent Psykhe (Psyche) on a quest to the unrworld to fetch the beauty-cream of as one of her many harsh trials. For MORE information on these mains see THE KORONIS WRATH : EUPHEMEA Pseudo-Hyginus Astronomica 2 16 (trans Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : "[Meropes of Cos] had a wife Ethemea of the race of Nymphae who was stuck with the arrows of Diana [Artemis] when she ceased worshipping her At last she was snatched away alive by Proserpina [] to the Land of the ad." Pseudo-Apollodorus Bibliotheca E1 23 - 24 (trans Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : "Theseus and Peirithoos () agreed with each other to marry daughters of Zeus so Theseus with the other's help kidnapped twelve-year-old Helene (Helen) from Sparta and went down to Hais' realm to court for Peirithoos Theseus arriving in Hais' realm with Peirithoos was thoroughly ceived for Hais on the pretense of hospitality had them sit first upon the throne of Lethe (Forgetfulness) Their bodies grew onto it and were held down by the serpent's coils Now Peirithoos remained fast there for all time but Herakles led Theseus back up." The popular Phoenician myth of the love of the godss Ashtarte for Adon was adopted by the Greeks who intified the godsses of the tale with Aphrodite and Persepone Pseudo-Apollodorus Bibliotheca 1 184 - 185 (trans Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : "Because of his [the infant Adonis] beauty Aphrodite secreted him away in a chest keeping it from the gods and left him with But when got a glimpse of Adonis she refused to return him When the matter was brought to Zeus for arbitration he divid the year into three parts and creed that Adonis would spend one third of the year by himself one third with and the rest with Aphrodite But Adonis add his own portion to Aphrodite's." περσεφονη Transliteration Persephonê Roman Name Proserpina Translation stroy-Slay Suidas s.v Lispoi : "When Theseus went down to the House of Hais to look for and was placed by to sit on a rock with the part of his buttocks attached to it was left on it when Herakles came down for Kerberos (Cerberus) and after asking the godss for him snatched him off the rock." Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and termine whether to revise the article. Pseudo-Hyginus Fabulae 79 (trans Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : "When Jove [Zeus] saw that they [Theseus and Peirithoos ()] had such audacity [kidnapping Helene] as to expose themselves to danger he ba them in a dream both go and ask Pluto [Hais] on ' part for Proserpina [] in When they had scend to the Land of the ad through the peninsula Taenarus and had informed Pluto why they had come they were stretched out and tortured for a long time by the Furiae [Erinyes] When Hercules came to lead out the three-head dog they begged his promise of protection He obtained the favor from Pluto and brought them out unharmed." Pseudo-Hyginus Fabulae 155 (trans Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : "Sons of Jove [Zeus] Liber [Dionysos-Zagreus] by Proserpina [] whom the Titanes (Titans) dismembered." Pseudo-Hyginus Fabulae 167 : "Liber [Zagreus-Dionysos] son of Jove [Zeus] and Proserpina [] was dismembered by the Titanes (Titans) and Jove gave his heart torn to bits to Semele in a drink When she was ma pregnant by this [with the god Dionysos] For this reason he is called Dionysus and also ‘the one with two mothers.’" Ovid Metamorphoses 6 114 (trans Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C to C1st A.D.) : "As a spotted serpent [Zeus seduced] ois []." King Peirithoos () of the Lapithai (Lapiths) sought to kidnap the godss from the unrworld for his bri He was however captured by the infernal gods and subjected to eternal torment Plato Republic 391c-d (trans Shorey) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) : "[From Plato's critique of the portrayal of gods by the poets :] Neither then must we believe this or suffer it to be said that Theseus the son of Poseidon and Peirithous () the son of Zeus attempted such dreadful rapes [i.e Helene and ] nor that any other child of a god and hero would have brought himself to accomplish the terrible and impious eds that they now falsely relate of him." Pseudo-Apollodorus Bibliotheca 2 124 : "As he [Herakles] approached the gates of Hais' realm [in his quest to fetch Kerberos (Cerberus)] he came across Theseus along with Peirithoos () who had courted with matrimonial intentions and for this reason was held fast as was Theseus When they saw Herakles they stretched forth their hands as if to rise up with the help of his strength He did in fact pull Theseus up by the hand but when he wanted to raise Peirithoos the earth shook and he let go." Theognis Fragment (trans Gerber Vol Greek Elegiac) (Greek elegy C6th B.C.) : "Sisyphos (Sisyphus) son of Aiolos (Aeolus) who by his wits came up even from Ais [Hais] after persuading with wily words who impairs the mind of mortals and brings them forgetfulness No one else has ever contrived this once Thanatos' (ath's) dark cloud has enveloped him and he has come to the shadowy place of the ad and passed the black gates which hold back the souls of the ad for all their protestations But even from there the hero Sisyphos returned to the light of the sun by his cleverness." In another VERSION of this myth it is Hais who releases Sisyphos from the Unrworld see Has Favour: Sisyphus Theoi Project © Copyright 2000 - 2017 Aaron J Atsma Netherlands & New Zealand Nonnus Dionysiaca 31 28 ff : "[Hera manipulates into sending an Erinys to plague Dionysos with madness :] ‘He [Zeus] rescued Semele's son [Dionysos] from the flaming fire he saved Bakkhos (Bacchus) from the thunrbolt while still a baby brat But Zagreus the heavenly Dionysos ['s son] he would not fend when he was cut up with knives! What ma me angrier still was that Kronis (Cronis) gave the starry heaven to Semele for a brigift,--and Tartaros (Tartarus) to ia! Heaven is reserved for Apollon Hermes lives in heaven--and you have this abo full of gloom! What good was it that he put on the ceiving shape of a serpent and ravished the girdle of your inviolate mainhood if after bed he was to stroy your babe?’" Strabo Geography 8 3 14 (trans Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C to C1st A.D.) : "Minthe who according to myth became the concubine of Hais was trampled unr foot by Kore (Core) [] and was transformed into garn-mint the plant which some call Hedyosmos." Ovid Metamorphoses 10 728 (trans Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C to C1st A.D.) : " of old was given grace to change a woman's [Minthe's] form to fragrant mint." Diodorus Siculus Library of History 4 26 1 (trans Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : "Herakles then according to the myths which have come down to us scend into the realm of Hais and being welcomed like a brother by brought Theseus and Peirithous () back to the upper world after freeing them from their bonds This he accomplished by the favour of and receiving the dog Kerberos (Cerberus) in chains he carried him away to the amazement of all and exhibited him to men." Pseudo-Hyginus Fabulae 79 (trans Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : "When Hercules came to lead out the three-head dog they [Peirithoos and Theseus trapped in the unrworld] begged his promise of protection He obtained the favor from Pluto [Hais] and brought them out unharmed." Post a Comment BLOG_CMT_createIframe(' '); In other myths appears exclusively as the queen of the unrworld receiving the likes of Herakles and Orpheus at her court was usually picted as a young godss holding sheafs of grain and a flaming torch Sometimes she was shown in the company of her mother meter and the hero Triptolemos the teacher of agriculture At other times she appears enthroned. Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C K14.7 Has & Apulian Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C K14.5 Has & Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C. When Orpheus came to the unrworld seeking the return of his ad love Eurydike (Eurydice) was moved by his tears and agreed to let her return Diodorus Siculus Library of History 4 25 4 (trans Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : "Because of the love he [Orpheus] held for his wife he dared the amazing ed of scending into Hais where he entrances by his melodious song and persuad her to assist him in his sires and to allow him to bring up his ad wife from Hais." Was the godss queen of the unrworld wife of the god Hais (Has) She was also the godss of spring growth who was worshipped alongsi her mother meter in the Eleusinian Mysteries This agricultural-based cult promised its initiates passage to a blessed afterlife.

Pseudo-Apollodorus Bibliotheca 1 106 (trans Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : "[Apollon] obtained from the Moirai (Fates) a privilege for [King] Admetos whereby when it was time for him to die he would be released from ath if someone should volunteer to die in his place When his day to die came [his wife] Alkestis (Alcestis) died for him Kore (Core) [] however sent her back or according to some Herakles battled Hais and brought her back up to Admetos." Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C O28.2 & Triptolemus Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C O28.1 & Triptolemus Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C. Other references not currently quoted here: Argonautica Orphica 1192 Lydus Mens 90 & &198 & 284 & 286 Scholiast on Hesiod's Theogony 913 Scholiast on Sophocles Oedipus at Colonus 1590 Orphica Argonautica 1192 Scholiast on Theocritus & & Hesychius 'Zagreus' Tzetzes on Lycophron 708 & 1176 Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius Servius on Aeneid Scoliast on Euripis Orestes 952 Arrian Exped Al Scholiast on Euripis' Phoenicians Athenaeus Livy 8 & 18 Appian BIBLIOGRAPHY A complete bibliography of the translations quoted on. Pseudo-Apollodorus Bibliotheca 2 124 (trans Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : "[Herakles] approached the gates of Hais' realm [in his quest to fetch Kerberos (Cerberus)] Then siring to supply the souls with blood he slaughtered one of Hais' cattle Their keeper Menoites (Menoetes) son of Keuthonymos (Ceuthonymos) challenged Herakles to a wrestling match Herakles hugged his torso and broke his ribs but set him down at the request of Herakles asked Plouton (Pluton) [Hais] for Kerberos (Cerberus) and was told to take the hound if he could overpower it without using any of the weapons he had brought with him." Apollodorus in his list of Zeus' divine children curiously calls a daughter of Zeus and Styx Elsewhere he gives the usual account where her mother is meter Pseudo-Apollodorus Bibliotheca 1 13 (trans Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : "Styx bore him [Zeus] " & THE CREATION OF MANKIND In one obscure myth was accredited with creation of mankind from clay (in place of the usual Prometheus) A divine dispute ensued over which god should possess him with the result that he was award to Zeus and Gaia in life and to. Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology ALTERNATE NAME SPELLINGS Greek Name Περσεφονη Περσεφονεια Περσεφονειη Περσεφασσα Φερσεφασσα Φερσεφαττα

φερρεφαττα Transliteration Persephonê ia iê Persephassa Phersephassa Phersephatta Pherrephatta Latin Spelling ia ia Persephassa Phersephassa Phersephatta Pherrephatta Translation structive-Slayer? (persô phonos) Seneca Hercules Furens 760 ff (trans Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : "Now tell my son's [Herakles] famous struggle Is it [the hound Kerberos] his willing uncle's [Hais'] gift or his spoil he brings? There appears the palace of greedy Dis [Hais] Here the savage Stygian dog frightens the shas At last the dog vanquished [by the club of Herakles] ceases his threatenings and spent with struggle lowers all his heads and yields all wardship of his cavern Both rulers [Hais and ] shiver on their throne and bid lead the dog away Me [Theseus] also they give as boon to Alcis' [Herakles'] prayer." For MORE information on Herakles and the Hound of Hais see KERBEROS We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles You can make it easier for us to review and hopefully publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind Encyclopædia Britannica articles are written in a neutral objective tone for a general audience You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered Any text you add should be original not copied from other sources At the bottom of the article feel free to list any sources that support your changes so that we can fully unrstand their context (Internet URLs are the best.) Your contribution may be further edited by our staff and its publication is subject to our final approval Unfortunately our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions Hais and inflicted Thebes with a adly plague probably as punishment for King Kreon's (Creon's) refusal to allow the burial of the ad warriors of the army of the Seven Against Thebes When the main Koronis (Coronis) sacrificed themselves to appease the gods they were pitied and transformed into a pair of comets. Hesiod Theogony 912 ff (trans Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : "He [Zeus] came to the bed of all-nourishing meter and she bare white-armed whom Aidoneus [Hais] carried off from her mother; but wise Zeus gave her to him." Homeric Hymn 2 to meter 1 ff (trans Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th or 6th B.C.) : "[meter's] trim-ankled daughter whom Aidoneus [Hais] rapt away given to him by all-seeing Zeus the loud-thunrer." Greek Lyric V Anonymous Fragments 931L (Oxyrhynchus papyrus) (trans Campbell) : "King Zeus' own sister [meter] and his daughter [] are happy both and ar to the blessed gods." There are innumerable other sources which scribe as the daughter of Zeus. Oppian Halieutica 3 485 (trans Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) : "Mint men say was once a maid beneath the earth a Nymphe of Kokytos (Cocytus) and she lay in the bed of Aidoneus [Hais]; but when he raped the maid from the Aitnaian hill [Mount Etna in Sicily] then she complained loudly with overweening words and raved foolishly for jealousy and meter in anger trampled upon her with her feet and stroyed her For she had said that she was nobler of form and more excellent in beauty than dark-eyed and she boasted that Aidoneus would return to her and banish the other from his halls : such infatuation leapt upon her tongue And from the earth spray the weak herb that bears her name." For MORE information on this Nymphe see MINTHE Suidas s.v Kore (trans Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D.) : "[The Suda follows Plutarch's rationalisation of the myth :] Kore (Core) (Main) : A virgin From koro (I sweep out) I cleanse Hais who ruled the Molossians at the time of the judges of the Jews had a daughter who was called Kore; for the Molossians called their good-looking women ‘mains’ Peirithous () loved her and wished to carry her off by night Knowing this her father tied her up by the watch dog he had which because of its size he called Tri-Kerberos (Cerberus) and it alt with Peirithous coming according to the arrangement; then he ravished the main coming out to his aid About her they say ‘Plouton (Pluton) ravished her.’" Originally belonged to the Lapiths a northern mountain tribe and probably his earliest legend was that of his to Hippodamia (daughter of Butes the beemaster) The Centaurs who had come to the wedding as guests in drunken fury tried to violate the bri and her attendants; this led to the battle of the Lapiths and the Centaurs a favourite subject of. Orphic Hymn 71 to Melinoe : "Melinoe saffron-veiled terrene who from Phersephone dread venerable queen mixt with Zeus Kronion arose near where Kokytos' (Cocytus') mournful river flows; when unr Plouton's (Pluton's) [Hais] semblance Zeus divine ceived with guileful arts dark Phersephone Hence partly black thy limbs and partly white from Plouton dark from Zeus ethereal bright." III ERINYES Orphic Hymn 70 to the Eumenis : "[Erinyes] from Zeus Khthonios (Chthonius) [Hais] born and Phersephone whom lovely locks adorn." Orphic Hymn 29 to : "Praxidike (Exacter of Justice) [] subterranean queen The Eumenis' [Erinyes'] source [mother] fair-haired whose frame proceeds from Zeus' [Zeus Khthonios or Hais] ineffable and secret seeds." Diodorus Siculus Library of History 4 26 1 : "Herakles then according to the myths which have come down to us scend into the realm of Hais and being welcomed like a brother by brought Theseus and Peirithous () back to the upper world after freeing them from their bonds This he accomplished by the favour of " Our editors will review what you've submitted and if it meets our criteria we'll add it to the article Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed Uh Oh There was a problem with your submission Please try. & As Amalia Dillin Fate of the Gods Historical Author-Friends! Greek Macedonia Wall Fresco C4th B.C R14.1 Has & Greco-Roman Marble Bas-Relief S14.1 Statue of Greco-Roman Marble Statue Diodorus Siculus Library of History 4 4 1 (trans Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : "Some writers of myth however relate that there was a second Dionysos [Zagreus] who was much earlier in time than the one we have just mentioned For according to them there was born of Zeus and a Dionysos who is called by some Sabazios (Sabazius) and whose birth and sacrifices and honours are celebrated at night and in secret because of the disgraceful conduct which is a consequence of the gatherings." Diodorus Siculus Library of History 5 75 4 : "This god [Dionysos-Zagreus] was born in Krete (Crete) men say of Zeus and and Orpheus has hand down the tradition in the initiatory rites that he was torn in pieces by the Titanes (Titans)."

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